By: Stephanie Salgado, AmeriCorps State & National Member
Chicago's public image is that of a powerhouse in the global economy, with explosive food, culture, and captivating skyscrapers. However, much like other mega-cities, this ideal characterization of Chicago fails to capture the lives of over 58,000 Chicagoans experiencing homelessness as of 2019. For many, there are no other options but to stay at a shelter or double up in someone else’s residence. Others are pushed to the city streets, forced to camp out and sleep on the hard concrete, smothered by the polluted smoke left by passerby cars. On top of having difficult access to housing, the challenges that people experiencing homelessness face worsen their overall health. While the experience of homelessness varies across individuals, one of the modern driving forces of homelessness is tied to gentrification.
In the history of settlement in Chicago gentrification, the incoming of wealthy residents and the introduction of neighborhood renovation into low-income communities have disrupted and displaced many of its own community members. This shift can be explained by a number of factors. New job opportunities are offered in these gentrified areas by high-paying professional jobs, which may require individuals to move in order to network and advance their careers. Low crime rates brought on by investment in the community can bring ease to some families who are looking to relocate to a safer neighborhood. Amenities like hip restaurants, theaters, transit, and other unique establishments attract people of higher socioeconomic status. These factors create an influx of affluent residents into low-income communities, consequently raising the cost of housing. The price of units increases and are no longer affordable to long-term residents, pushing them out of their neighborhoods and, often enough, into homelessness and rampant poverty. Gentrification further perpetuates the worsening racial and economic segregation present in Chicago’s communities. Terms such as North Side, West Side, and South Side encompass subtle meanings that relate to the division of Chicago. These terms are characterized by their descriptions of neighborhoods that vary from affluent White Chicagoans, North Side, to impoverished predominantly people of color, West Side and South Side.
This narrative remains true for Chicago’s very own Pilsen neighborhood on the Lower West Side, with its rich history, culture, community, and families. Long-term Pilsen resident, Lucy Gutierrez, has steadily witnessed the loss of her very own community members as the price of housing forced her neighbors to sell their homes. This wave of gentrification replaced small family-owned businesses with new trendy restaurants and luxury developments. Existing residents are prevented from benefiting from the economic growth as they become unemployed and suffer from the dramatic increase in housing prices. Furthermore, as the population of minorities continues to decline, and are replaced by wealthy white incomers, this makes way for culture displacement. As there is less appreciation of the art, language, and history ingrained in the neighborhood, its residents endure a loss of social and personal identity.
To combat the effects of gentrification in Pilsen, local residents came together to form The Resurrection Project in 1990. Their work includes finding affordable housing and quality education for its community members. The Resurrection Project has around 800 affordable units in Chicago’s West and South Side neighborhoods, as well as five housing projects. Raul Raymundo, CEO of the Resurrection Project, expressed that the Resurrection Project “‘is part of a bigger effort to further create balanced development,’” and “‘[a]s [they] welcome newcomers, [they] want families from the neighborhood to benefit from the prosperity of the neighborhood.’”
However, Pilsen is not the only neighborhood in Chicago that has experienced a stark transformation brought upon by gentrification. Humboldt Park, located on Chicago’s West side, has seen a tremendous spike in the cost of living. In 2020, DePaul University conducted a study looking at trends in the cost of living near the 606, which includes Wicker Park, Bucktown, Humboldt Park, and Logan Square. This study found that from 2012 to 2022, the price for one-to-four unit buildings dramatically increased by 344 percent. Patricia Prado, another community member, shares that she lived in Humboldt Park for twenty-two years, until 2019 when she and her family had to relocate due to the increase in property taxes. “‘I didn’t have the financial means to do what I needed to do so because the area was so hot and gentrification was still going on, people want the land,’” Patricia expressed. “‘They didn’t care about my house. It’s all about location.’” Gentrification continues to adversely affect people like Patricia Prado and Lucy Gutierrez - those with the least voice and power in society.
Housing goes beyond having a roof over your head. Health outcomes and individual well-being are not only influenced by biological factors but also by housing, food access, and education. Individuals that endure long-term homelessness are put at a higher risk for chronic conditions, substance abuse, mental illness, and other large problems. As homelessness is a life-altering experience, it is common for people who are experiencing homelessness to be exposed to trauma or relive past trauma as a result. As mainly working-class minorities who are at a higher risk of becoming homeless are continually met with excessive heights in the cost of living, it is important to consider the loss of identity, opportunities, and culture that quickly follows.
The Resurrection Project | (312) 666-1323
Logan Square Association Neighborhood | (773) 384-4370
The Chicago Urban League | (773) 285-5800
Latino Policy Reform | (312) 376-1766
... (n.d.). Gentrification Near the 606: Logan Square, Humboldt Park. Retrieved from http://redlineproject.org/humboldt_gentrification.php
Daniels, C. M. (2021, September 19). 'No family left behind' - Pilsen's latest affordable housing project takes stand against gentrification. Retrieved from https://chicago.suntimes.com/2021/9/16/22678124/pilsen-affordable-housing-resurrection-project-casa-durango-racine-ashland-gentrification
FAQs/Studies. (2021, September 08). Retrieved from https://www.chicagohomeless.org/faq-studies/
Institute for Housing Studies - DePaul University. (n.d.). Displacement Pressure in Context: Examining Recent Housing Market Changes Near The 606. Retrieved from https://www.housingstudies.org/releases/Displacement-Pressure-in-Context-606/?utm_source=Institute+for+Housing+Studies+Updates+and+News
Kang, E. Y. (2022, March 18). New census data confirms the continuation of Chicago neighborhoods' gentrification. Retrieved from https://www.wbez.org/stories/census-data-shows-continuing-gentrification-in-chicago/c1663c00-c3a2-41c4-845a-a76b717d8499
Meltzer, R., & Ghorbani, P. (2017, June 15). Does gentrification increase employment opportunities in low-income neighborhoods? Retrieved from http://sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0166046217302193#:~:text=Employment effects from gentrification are very localized.&text=In gentrifying neighborhoods, incumbent residents lose jobs while total jobs increase.&text=Local jobs decline in service,producing and lower wage positions.&text=Incumbent residents also gain goods,wage jobs a farther distances.
Puente, T., & Writer, T. S. (2021, August 11). PILSEN FEARS UPSCALE PUSH MAY SHOVE MANY OUT. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1997-11-04-9711040475-story.html
Stephanie. (2020, November 10). Chicago's Homeless Population Was Already On The Rise Before The Pandemic. Now, City Scrambles To Plan For Next Wave. Retrieved from https://blockclubchicago.org/2020/11/10/chicagos-homeless-population-was-already-on-the-rise-before-the-pandemic-now-city-scrambles-to-plan-for-next-wave/
Bullying is an epidemic. Millions of Americans are subjected to bullying every day whether it be at home, online, in school, or on the streets. Victims of bullying vary in age, but it’s kids that seem to struggle most with it. Teenage depression and suicide rates are at an all time high. Even as schools continue to implement stricter anti-bullying rules, the hatred, teasing, and abuse persists. Many students who have experienced bullying feel like they are alone despite countless resources that are supposed to support them.
No child should ever experience bullying–it can be debilitating, dehumanizing, and even the slightest sense of social pressure can be paralyzing. Thankfully, discussions surrounding mental health and bullying are continuing to be destigmatized, and there are more safe spaces for students who are suffering to turn to. But what about students whose family lives are completely unstable? What about kids who don’t know where their next meal will come from? What about children who have no place to call home?
According to the National Conference of State Legislators, 4.2 million children and young adults are currently homeless, with nearly 700,000 of them being unaccompanied transient minors. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008; HRSA, 2001). Many of these children have very limited, if any, access to health care, and many lack adult figures that they feel comfortable confiding in. On average, 42% of homeless students report being bullied compared to 23% percent of housed peers, and suicide rates amounst humless children are nearly 3 times higher than those who are housed (The Institute for Children, Poverty, and Homelessness). Studies have found that children who have left home due to abuse are at a frighteningly high risk of revictimization at school, which in effect leads to a higher risk of suffering from mental illness.
Homeless youth are disproportionately subjected to bullying at school and on the streets, yet it is nearly impossible for them to seek help for the damage that bullying causes. Many states allocate zero tax revenue to mental health services for the homeless, and schools alone are not capable of solving the bullying crisis. Until something is done to protect these highly vulnerable kids from bullying, mental illness amongst homeless youth will continue to rise.
This month's advocacy article is a little different! We decided, with it being social work awareness month, that HOPES would shed some light on our amazing social workers and what their experiences have been working in this particular field. This past month, we interviewed our University of Chicago Social Work Interns, Shamrim Yousef, Erica Ramos, along with our program director Erica Walker, LCSW, to share with us their thoughts related to the field of social work and the work they do here at HOPES.
By car, train, bike, bus, or simply on foot, the ways in which we choose to travel grants us the freedom to go where we want or need. Unfortunately, mode of transportation is not a choice for many. The expenses of purchasing and insuring a car, maintaining a bike, or the price of a bus or train ticket all limit the number of places and resources in which those experiencing poverty or homelessness can access. Low-income neighborhoods often lack fresh food grocery stores and jobs, meaning residents often have to travel further than those in wealthier areas to access food and work. Low nutrition, longer commutes, and a focus on physically inactive transportation increases stress and decreases health, making it harder to learn or work. The basic forms of transportation that people have access to make a huge difference in our cities and suburbs, where sprawling neighborhoods can invalidate walking, the only free form of transportation, as a viable means of accessing food, work, entertainment, or expanded social interaction.
While the simple existence of these modes of transportation creates barriers to those facing homelessness and poverty, the streets, bike lanes, and sidewalks used to facilitate transportation have historically facilitated homelessness, both intentionally and incidentally. Most notably, in the name of faster commutes and drivability, predominantly African American neighborhoods in most of our U.S cities have been dissected by highways, increasing access to city jobs and resources to suburbanites, but demolishing housing and cutting off interconnected roads for those in the city. In neighborhoods where wealth is more abundant and residents have more time to be involved in community projects, trails and sidewalks are more easily built and maintained, creating more space to be active and inviting businesses to the surrounding area. In low-income neighborhoods, sidewalks, if there are any at all, are often along busy streets with few barriers from cars, few traffic lights, and overall provide less protection for pedestrians. This, along with less greenery and chipped or cracked sidewalks, can discourage residents from relying on walking as a form of transportation, again, reducing access to public transportation, jobs, food, and physical activity, all of which perpetuate homelessness.
In recent years in Chicago, a large focus has been placed on bike trails, in many initiatives to make the city’s transportation more eco-friendly. Bike trails can benefit communities both in health and economy, by providing safer spaces for physical activity and better access to more of the city. However, when bike trails are not interconnected throughout a whole city and have limited access points, typically just connecting high-income neighborhoods to other high-income neighborhoods, bike trails can have adverse effects on communities. Famously, the 606 trail, built mostly through private developers, gentrified the neighborhoods it was built through, forcing many to sell their homes to larger housing corporations with higher rents, pushing residents out of their homes. Today, the city of Chicago has started a new initiative, in which they plan to convert abandoned railroad tracks in Englewood into bike trails. Alongside this initiative, the city plans to give out 5000 free bikes, helmets and locks to residents. This project promises to be community led, aiming to avoid the pitfalls of the 606 Trail. The details of how this will be accomplished are still unknown, so it will be important for community members to stay up to date and involved with the process to make sure the promised resources go to those who need them.
By: Sarah Kelley, AmeriCorps Program Coordinator
For many of us, pets are like family. During the pandemic, we turned to our pets as a way to cope with loneliness, boredom, mental health challenges, and stress. For individuals who have experienced past traumas like domestic violence and homelessness, pets can play an especially important support role. When thinking about domestic violence, you might not immediately consider the impact violence has on pets in the home or what role animals play in the abuse. However, domestic violence advocates are increasingly aware of the strong link between animal abuse and domestic violence. Given that approximately 85 million American households have pets, and over 10 million people are survivors of intimate partner violence every year, the number of domestic violence incidents that involve pets is significant (The Safe Haven Network).
The unconditional love and support from a pet can have many benefits, including reducing our stress, social isolation, depression, and blood pressure. Animals can also increase our quality of life, happiness, prosocial behaviors, and allow us to feel needed as caregivers and nurturers. Many pets, especially dogs, can be extremely loyal and protective of us. This strong bond between pets and their owners can be used manipulatively, especially in cases of domestic violence. Animals can be used by abusers to reinforce power and control over someone, to terrorize or frighten them, eliminate a source of comfort and support, or coerce someone into staying in an abusive relationship longer. In fact, 65% of domestic violence survivors report feeling unable to leave their abusers because of concern for what will happen to their pet when they leave (Partners for Peace).
So, what can we do about this? One important step we can take to help individuals trying to leave abusive situations, is advocating for shelters that allow people to bring their pets. Many of us aren’t aware of how few homeless and domestic violence (DV) shelters actually allow animals. The SAF-T Program is a global initiative helping domestic violence shelters to create on-site pet housing for families fleeing violence. Their website tracks a growing list of pet friendly DV shelters throughout the world. Currently the site has 236 shelters listed for the United States, which means that on average each state has less than 5 Pet-Friendly DV shelters available. Despite the fact that Chicago is the 3rd largest city in the country, and that domestic violence calls surged during COVID-19, there are currently no pet-friendly DV shelters in the city. The closest pet-friendly DV shelter is in Quincy, IL, which is about a 5 hour drive from Chicago.
Having shelters available that recognize the power of the human-animal bond can help survivors heal faster and avoid homelessness. Many survivors will choose homelessness over separation from their pet, even if that means living in their car for multiple months at a time. It might be easy to walk down the street and pass judgment on a homeless person with their dog or think, “Can this person really take care of their pet?”. It is a common misconception that people experiencing homelessness can’t take care of their pets. Organizations like The Safe Haven Network are trying to combat stereotypes against homelessness and animal companionship, and help people understand that pet-owners experiencing homelessness are not much different than pet-owners who are housed. They love their pets, treat them like family, and will do whatever it takes to take good care of them.
For people experiencing domestic violence and homelessness, a pet can be the one thing that gives them the love, courage, and strength to face the day. A dog or cat can be a lifeline for their owner and a reason to survive and get out of a harmful situation. As a community, we can spread awareness about the link between animal abuse, domestic violence, and homelessness. We can also advocate and empower shelters to start making pet-accommodations and help them see the immense value of allowing individuals to remain with their pet.
If you are interested in advocating for this cause, please consider donating or volunteering your time with The Safe Haven Network.
By: Tanisha Shelton
Imagine this: you are sitting at your desk at work when your stomach starts growling. You didn’t have time to eat breakfast. Because of this, your blood sugar has dropped, and you are having a hard time focusing and staying awake at work. However, you do have access to nutritious food and stable housing. Many people have experienced nutritional deficits at one time or another during their day to day lives, but people who experience nutritional deficits on a more continuous basis are those experiencing homelessness. There is a strong connection between experiencing homelessness and suffering from poor nutrition. This article will focus on how malnutrition is related to experiencing homelessness and what can be done to help mitigate this problem.
For those who experience homelessness, they prioritize finding a safe place to sleep at night, which is more important than finding food. People experiencing homelessness have to eat whatever food that they can without thinking about how beneficial that food is to their health. For many people experiencing homelessness, they also have little to no money, so they have to find foods that they can afford. If the financial circumstances of homeless individuals were to change, the “nutritional quality of the food is usually lacking. Most cheap meals are highly processed, so while they’re filling, that’s all they are, all filler [with] no substance” (Support Cause Inspired Media 2019). People experiencing homelessness inadvertently prioritize feeling full over feeling healthful, which leads to them being malnourished.
Another way that people experiencing homelessness have different priorities is that when they buy food, they focus on getting food that is easy to tote around and eat since they frequently move from place to place. Eating and buying “raw or canned foods might be easier to carry, but a homeless individual would have to carry around the necessary materials to cook and eat them including a saucepan, utensils, dishes, and a can opener” (Support Cause Inspired Media 2019). There are more things involved with having nutritious food to eat than just finding food itself; people experiencing homelessness also need to find practical ways to open, store, and warm up things that they find. As a result, people experiencing homelessness are malnourished since they also need to focus on ways to be practical because they usually move around a lot.
To conclude, people who experience homelessness don’t have easy access to foods that are good for their bodies because of different priorities, which are caused by how the system is set up; healthier foods tend to cost more than foods that are detrimental to health. Not having access to nutritious foods can, later on, cause health problems for those experiencing homelessness. However, there are steps that can be taken to help alleviate some of these risks. Different places can leave out healthy and nutritious snacks for the public to take, and more community kitchens can open up to provide healthy, free meals to those who are experiencing homelessness. Both of these aspects are some of the essential ways of mitigating the experience of hunger and malnourishment amongst the community that experiences homelessness.
Support Cause Inspired Media. “Challenges of Proper Nutrition While Homeless.” Hearts for the Homeless, 23 Jul. 2019, https://heartsforthehomeless.org/challenges-of-proper-nutrition/. Accessed 1 Feb. 2022.
Challenges of Proper Nutrition While Homeless - Hearts for the Homeless
Foster Care and Homelessness
by: Tess Pickering
AmeriCorps Vista Communication Coordinator
You turn 18 and the world says “Ok you’re an adult now.” For more privileged individuals this can be an inspiring time where they go to college, live independently from their immediate families, or simply follow their dreams; However, for children who have grown up in the foster care system, it indicates the maximum age that a state will support them. In some cases, these individuals are given paperwork for their birthday and are brought straight from their foster homes to homeless shelters. According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (respondents ages 18–26) approximately 23% of young people who age out of foster care will experience homelessness by the age of 21.
Homelessness also costs taxpayers millions annually. Due to the many needs and services the government provides for alleviating homelessness, (including housing, mental health services, physical health services) it is difficult to estimate the total amount of funding that goes into these programs; However, based on a study conducted by the government research program Datalab, the city of New York alone spent $3.2 billion on homelessness programs in 2019. Therefore, preventing homelessness and providing long term solutions for this population would be fiscally beneficial.
The relationships and connections the recently “aged-out” youths hold is essential to their success in post-foster care life. Policies meant to address this issue should facilitate permanent connections with families and cultivate a network of positive and supportive relationships with mentors, coaches, employers and any other permanent figures. Making foster parents or supportive figures aware of the trauma and life the youth has experienced is an important factor in creating emotional bonds and securing permanency. A further way to remove the disincentive of permanency in families is to provide families with more financial support if they decide to adopt this person into their lives permanently, rather than providing more benefits for less permanent fostering programs. (Aime E casey, 2019). Currently, our system does not reflect this logic and actually incentivizes the opposite.
Furthermore, a child's opportunity to meet age-appropriate goals and opportunities are essential to enable growth emotionally, mentally, physically, socially and academically. People in foster care often don’t have the opportunity to enjoy learning in a regulated environment, build a savings account, plan for college, or enjoy the mundane activities experienced by people who are not in foster care. This creates a significant barrier that makes it more important that a child meets age appropriate expectations, milestones and goals so that they do not fall behind in any aspect of life. A youth in foster care should have the ability to get tutoring in certain subjects, join a sports league, or pursue their creative interests that could eventually inspire a career and lead to a stable future.
Additionally, making sure families, programs, and caregivers are made aware of the Family First Prevention Act and trained properly on how to timely implement it. This program provides tuition waivers to youths aging out of the system, fighting debt through loan forgiveness programs, and aiding in the enrollment to higher education programs. Helping these youths to develop in their careers, teaching financial literacy, and assisting in tasks such as opening a bank account prepares them for a successful future where they are able to function as non-homeless experiencing individuals.
In conclusion, the transition to adulthood is commonly understood to be a gradual process that spans ages 18 through 25, but for youths who aged out of foster care it can be an abrupt process that they are unprepared for. Ways to combat this experience include fostering permanent and supportive relationships, giving a child the opportunity to reach milestones and explore their interests, and finally, encouraging a post secondary education by aiding in the application and enrollment process, including financially. These factors are important building blocks of creating equal opportunities for youths and have them reach their full potential.
In the early days of the pandemic, social, economic, and health inequities became painfully clear to many who may not have had such awareness prior. As businesses and public places began shutting down, the country heavily relied on frontline workers. Communities of color have been hit the hardest by the pandemic, with numbers in Chicago showing that Black and Latinx communities have suffered the biggest impacts (Yoon-Ji Kang, Moore, & Zamudio, 2020). However, much of the data available to us about the impacts of COVID-19 fails to include information about individuals experiencing homelessness. This failure is due in part to the fact that “the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the main federal agency overseeing homeless programs, has not required its national network of providers to gather information on infections or deaths” (Bohannon et al., 2020). This does not allow us to have a full picture of the impacts that the pandemic has had on people experiencing homelessness, a population already not given sufficient public attention.
According to Rodriguez and colleagues (2021), people experiencing homelessness “face disproportionate rates of underlying health conditions and substance use disorders, stigma, and marginalization that often disenfranchise them from health and social services.” During the pandemic, these effects are only exacerbated, with COVID-related lockdown measures creating a disruption to resources for many people experiencing homelessness (Rodriguez et al., 2021). Further, following strict COVID-19 guidelines can be harder in shelter settings where social distancing is not always possible and resources are not always present. Access to medical care, testing, and vaccination against COVID-19 are also important factors to consider when it comes to individuals experiencing homelessness. An estimate from the US Interagency Council on Homelessness claims that approximately 15,000 people experiencing homelessness contracted COVID in 2020, and that about 250 homeless individuals died as a result of COVID-19 that same year (Rodriguez et al., 2021). However, these numbers are simply estimates because, as mentioned previously, there is no concerted effort to collect data on homeless populations. This does not allow us to give full recognition to the impacts of COVID-19 on people experiencing homelessness, and therefore, makes it more difficult to respond accordingly.
Effective pandemic responses must prioritize individuals experiencing homelessness, who are at greater risk for COVID infection and community transmission (Rodriguez et al., 2021). Vaccination efforts should also prioritize individuals experiencing homelessness, with homeless service providers having a direct voice in conversations around how to best serve these communities. While $4 billion dollars was allocated to support homeless populations as part of the CARES Act, the disbursement of these funds has proven difficult, with less than 30% of those funds reaching individuals in need (Rodriguez et al., 2021). This serves as yet another barrier in an already uneven playing field. Moving forward, it is incredibly important that special attention and space is given to the voices and experiences of those facing homelessness not only during the pandemic, but beyond the pandemic as well.
Bohannon, M., Surma, K., Fast, A., Abdaladze, N., Lupo, M., Fields, J., Garg, S. (2020, August 24). COVID-19 is ‘a crisis within a crisis’ for homeless people. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/covid-19-is-a-crisis-within-a-crisis-for-homeless- people
Rodriguez, N.M., Lahey, A.M., MacNeill, J.J., Martinez, R.G., Teo, N.E., & Ruiz, Y. (2021). Homelessness during COVID-19: Challenges, responses, and lessons learned from homeless service providers in Tippecanoe county, Indiana. BMC Public Health, 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11687-8
Yoon-Ji Kang, E., Moore, N., & Zamudio, M.. (2020). “A Perfect Storm: 50 Lives in 4 Zip Codes Tell Chicago’s Story of COVID-19 Inequality.” WBEZ, https://www.wbez.org/stories/a-perfect-storm-50-lives-and-4-zip-codes-tell-chicagos- story-of-covid-19-inequality/50b822ae-523e-47fa-a823-3c6a1c3ee12f
Many people who overcome challenges and succeed are often called resilient. Meaning they have the ability to become strong, healthy, or successful again after something bad happens”(Merriam Webster). However, rarely do we indulge in the conversation that identifies all of the traumatic experiences through which children have to go through to be labeled resilient in the end. To better understand how adversity builds resilience in homeless youth we must gain an understanding of
Trauma in itself can be described as a personal response “from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life-threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being.” (SAMHSA, 2014). It’s imperative to note that homelessness is considered a traumatic experience that can be considered an adverse experience for anyone. Youth who experience homelessness can process these events in unique ways and oftentimes need more support from healthy relationships to develop social-emotional skills at an early age.
What is an ACE score?
The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study was put together in 1995 by the Center for Disease Control and the Kaiser Permanente health care organization of California. In the original study, there were three categories of adverse experiences. The first one was physical and emotional abuse, the second one was neglect, and lastly household dysfunction. It wasn’t until later that community and systemic issues were recognized as adverse experiences. According to the Harvard Center on the Developing Child, “the body’s stress response does not distinguish between overt threats from inside or outside the home environment, it just recognizes when there is a threat, and goes on high alert.” When youth are on high alert all the time it means that they are not able to properly identify or self-regulate their mental state to acknowledge that they are safe and well. The ACE study presents us with valuable insight into the upbringing of the child and what types of adversity they may be facing. From this data we as educators, community heroes and parents can best support the development of the whole child.
How is Resiliency Built and Measured
Science has proven that some children develop the ability to be resilient while others do not. In other words some people are able to “bounce back” from a traumatic experience while others stay in a fight or flight response long after the traumatic experience has passed. We can think of resilience as a balancing act of the good outweighing the bad. Some of these positives that can outweigh the bad are supportive adults, healthy relationships and exposure to positive experiences. Imagine if a child is only having adverse experiences in their life and the scale is tipped heavily to one side, what is the likelihood that resiliency will be the outcome? In this instance there are other risk factors that come into play like long term health problems, developmental delays and other behavioral issues that may arise. For these reasons it’s important to note that all children can build resilience if they have the proper support and guidance from the people around them. If someone’s scale has been tipped to the negative side for most of their life, the possibility for them to build resilience is still there. Thankfully the brain is a beautiful muscle that is able to learn new things and reprogram itself time and time again. Noting those adverse experiences and working through the trauma as well as building up the positive experiences can help to balance out the scale at any age in life.
Before we can begin to support others along their journey it is imperative that we understand the depths at which the trauma of homelessness affects certain demographics. In Chicago alone, %81 of people who identified as homeless were Black/African American in 2019. (Chicago Coalition for the Homeless) in the same year 1,343 were students enrolled in the Students in temporary Living Situation program with CPS and only %11 reported living in an actual shelter. When we come across these learners in our daily programs we must adopt a trauma centered lens that allows us to see the potential for resiliency in their situation and develop an empathetic approach to build out positive learning experiences that will support that child on their journey. This will empower us to see the potential in their situation as an opportunity to build resilience in the face of adversity and change the expected outcomes that lie farther down the road.
Living on the streets or in public spaces means constantly being vulnerable. This includes being susceptible to natural disasters, to illness, and to the system and people we have in place to ideally protect us: law enforcement and our criminal justice system. Cities are responding to growing frustrations towards homelessness from the public with a new tactic; legislation designed to hide the homeless rather than help them.
Being homeless is not explicitly illegal in the United States, but currently there are civil and criminal laws which make the behaviors of homeless people illegal. “Law enforcement threatens or punishes homeless people for doing things in public that every person has to do. This includes activities such as sleeping, sheltering oneself, asking for donations, or simply existing in public places.” It also includes arbitrarily enforcing other laws, and the practice of sweeps, which displaces homeless people from outdoor public spaces through harassment, threats, and evictions from living in camps. These activities make it very difficult for homeless people to exist without committing a crime.
A report from the National Homelessness Law Center tracked the upwards trend of criminalizing homelessness in 187 cities and found that it actually has an adverse effect. In these cities, the practices of camping in public increased by 92%, begging increased by 103%, and loitering increased by 35%. These trends happen for many reasons, but partially because certain periods of incarceration under laws criminalizing homelessness directly harms a person’s ability to maintain or access public housing. Furthermore, when a homeless person has been arrested for unavoidable behavior, they now have a criminal record and will often miss work for an extended period of time. This creates barriers that lessen the likelihood of employment or losing a pre existing job.
Also, court costs associated with resolving or appealing a case can amount to hundreds, or even thousands of dollars. Individuals who do not have the resources to pay are then subject to additional jail time, once again interrupting any chance at maintaining employment. In these ways, an arrest or conviction can lead to lifelong barriers. The consequences of civil penalties are similar, as unpaid tickets lead to bad credit scores which can easily bar a person from housing access. Unpaid tickets can also lead to the suspension of one’s driver’s license or repossession of a vehicle, which drastically limits the prospects of work for that person.
The 2019 federal court case Martin v. City of Boise, involved 6 residents of the city who had experienced homelessness and were arrested or cited due to violating a city ordinance that made it a misdemeanor to use “any of the streets, sidewalks, parks, or public places as a camping place at any time.” The plaintiffs claimed this was a violation of their 8th amendment Constitutional rights, which prohibits cruel and unusual punishment. The court ruled that cities can not arrest or punish people for sleeping on public property unless they provide adequate and accessible indoor accommodations. While this ruling acknowledged the fact that it is unfair to criminalize individuals for behaviors that are unavoidable, and presumed they had a choice in the matter, there are still too many people in local governments who think the right answer to homelessness is arresting people.
The majority of cities have too few shelter beds, this shortage has been made worse since federal funding was scaled back in 2012. Our system gravitates towards the easiest and quickest solution to homelessness, which is arresting people and getting them out of sight; however, this is far from an adequate solution, as whether people are in jail or on the streets, they nevertheless remain homeless. This “solution” is an attempt to avoid the core issues of homelessness and does not offer people the necessary resources to alleviate the barriers that cause homelessness in the first place.